什么是RESTful API以及Django RestFramework

在这里可以讨论Django开发技术,插件应用等方面技术

版主: jvip_chen

回复
头像
virtual
社区管理员
社区管理员
帖子: 13
注册时间: 2019年 1月 4日 08:06 星期五

什么是RESTful API以及Django RestFramework

帖子 virtual » 2019年 8月 22日 09:10 星期四

一. 什么是RESTful API以及Django RestFramework
1. 协议
API与用户的通信协议,总是使用HTTPS协议。
2. 域名

应该尽量将API部署在专用域名之下(存在跨域问题): https://api.example.com
如果确定API很简单,不会有进一步扩展,可以考虑放在主域名下: https://example.org/api/

3. 版本
应该将API的版本号放入URL: https://api.example.com/v1/
另一种做法是,将版本号放在HTTP头信息中,但不如放入URL方便和直观。GitHub Developer Guide采用这种做法,跨域时会引发多次请求

4. 路径(Endpoint)
路径又称"终点"(endpoint),表示API的具体网址。
在RESTful架构中,每个网址代表一种资源(resource),所以网址中不能有动词,只能有名词,而且所用的名词往往与数据库的表格名对应。一般来说,数据库中的表都是同种记录的"集合"(collection),所以API中的名词也应该使用复数。
举例来说,有一个API提供动物园(zoo)的信息,还包括各种动物和雇员的信息,则它的路径应该设计成下面这样。

代码: 全选

https://api.example.com/v1/zoos
https://api.example.com/v1/animals
https://api.example.com/v1/employees
5. HTTP动词
对于资源的具体操作类型,由HTTP动词表示。
常用的HTTP动词有下面五个(括号里是对应的SQL命令)

代码: 全选

GET(SELECT):从服务器取出资源(一项或多项)
POST(CREATE):在服务器新建一个资源
PUT(UPDATE):在服务器更新资源(客户端提供改变后的完整资源)
PATCH(UPDATE):在服务器更新资源(客户端提供改变的属性)
DELETE(DELETE):从服务器删除资源
还有两个不常用的HTTP动词

代码: 全选

HEAD:获取资源的元数据
OPTIONS:获取信息,关于资源的哪些属性是客户端可以改变的
下面是一些例子:

代码: 全选

GET /zoos:列出所有动物园
POST /zoos:新建一个动物园
GET /zoos/ID:获取某个指定动物园的信息
PUT /zoos/ID:更新某个指定动物园的信息(提供该动物园的全部信息)
PATCH /zoos/ID:更新某个指定动物园的信息(提供该动物园的部分信息)
DELETE /zoos/ID:删除某个动物园
GET /zoos/ID/animals:列出某个指定动物园的所有动物
DELETE /zoos/ID/animals/ID:删除某个指定动物园的指定动物
6. 过滤信息(Filtering)

如果记录数量很多,服务器不可能都将它们返回给用户.API应该提供参数,过滤返回结果
常见的参数形式如下:

代码: 全选

?limit=10:指定返回记录的数量
?offset=10:指定返回记录的开始位置。
?page=2&per_page=100:指定第几页,以及每页的记录数。
?sortby=name&order=asc:指定返回结果按照哪个属性排序,以及排序顺序。
?animal_type_id=1:指定筛选条件
参数的设计允许存在冗余,即允许API路径和URL参数偶尔有重复。比如,GET /zoo/ID/animals 与 GET /animals?zoo_id=ID 的含义是相同的。

7. 状态码(Status Codes)

服务器向用户返回的状态码和提示信息,常见的有以下一些(方括号中是该状态码对应的HTTP动词)

代码: 全选

200 OK - [GET]:服务器成功返回用户请求的数据,该操作是幂等的(Idempotent)。
201 CREATED - [POST/PUT/PATCH]:用户新建或修改数据成功。
202 Accepted - [*]:表示一个请求已经进入后台排队(异步任务)
204 NO CONTENT - [DELETE]:用户删除数据成功。
400 INVALID REQUEST - [POST/PUT/PATCH]:用户发出的请求有错误,服务器没有进行新建或修改数据的操作,该操作是幂等的。
401 Unauthorized - [*]:表示用户没有权限(令牌、用户名、密码错误)。
403 Forbidden - [*] 表示用户得到授权(与401错误相对),但是访问是被禁止的。
404 NOT FOUND - [*]:用户发出的请求针对的是不存在的记录,服务器没有进行操作,该操作是幂等的。
406 Not Acceptable - [GET]:用户请求的格式不可得(比如用户请求JSON格式,但是只有XML格式)。
410 Gone -[GET]:用户请求的资源被永久删除,且不会再得到的。
422 Unprocesable entity - [POST/PUT/PATCH] 当创建一个对象时,发生一个验证错误。
500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR - [*]:服务器发生错误,用户将无法判断发出的请求是否成功
注意: 状态码的完全列表参见这里

8. 错误处理(Error handling)

如果状态码是4xx,就应该向用户返回出错信息。一般来说,返回的信息中将error作为键名,出错信息作为键值即可。

代码: 全选

{
    error: "Invalid API key"
}
9. 返回结果

针对不同操作,服务器向用户返回的结果应该符合以下规范

代码: 全选

GET /collection:返回资源对象的列表(数组)
GET /collection/resource:返回单个资源对象
POST /collection:返回新生成的资源对象
PUT /collection/resource:返回完整的资源对象
PATCH /collection/resource:返回完整的资源对象
DELETE /collection/resource:返回一个空文档
10. Hypermedia API

RESTful API最好做到Hypermedia,即返回结果中提供链接,连向其他API方法,使得用户不查文档,也知道下一步应该做什么。
比如,当用户向api.example.com的根目录发出请求,会得到这样一个文档:

代码: 全选

{"link": {
  "rel":   "collection https://www.example.com/zoos",
  "href":  "https://api.example.com/zoos",
  "title": "List of zoos",
  "type":  "application/vnd.yourformat+json"
}}
上面代码表示,文档中有一个link属性,用户读取这个属性就知道下一步该调用什么API了。rel表示这个API与当前网址的关系(collection关系,并给出该collection的网址),href表示API的路径,title表示API的标题,type表示返回类型。
Hypermedia API的设计被称为HATEOAS。Github的API就是这种设计,访问api.github.com会得到一个所有可用API的网址列表。

代码: 全选

{
  "current_user_url": "https://api.github.com/user",
  "authorizations_url": "https://api.github.com/authorizations",
  // ...
}
从上面可以看到,如果想获取当前用户的信息,应该去访问\api.github.com/user,然后就得到了下面结果:

代码: 全选

{
  "message": "Requires authentication",
  "documentation_url": "https://developer.github.com/v3"
}
上面代码表示,服务器给出了提示信息,以及文档的网址

11. 其他

API的身份认证应该使用OAuth 2.0框架。
服务器返回的数据格式,应该尽量使用JSON,避免使用XML。

RESTful API 设计指南 - 阮一峰的网络日志
GitHub - aisuhua/restful-api-design-references: RESTful API 设计参考文献列表

二. 基于Django的实现

2.1 路由系统

代码: 全选

from app01 import views
urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^users', views.UserView.as_view())
]
2.2 CBV视图

代码: 全选

class UserView(View):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        result = {"status": True, "data": "This is a get request", "msg": None, "code": 2000}
        return JsonResponse(result, status=200)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        result = {"status": True, "data": "This is a post request", "msg": None, "code": 2000}
        return JsonResponse(result, status=200)
三. 基于Django Rest Framework 框架实现
3.1 基本流程
路由:URL.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^index', views.IndexView.as_view())
]
视图: views.py

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

class IndexView(APIView):
    """
    请求到来之后,都要执行dispatch方法,dispatch方法根据请求方式不同触发反射 get/post/put 等方法
    注意:APIView中的dispatch方法有好多好多的功能
    """

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return super().dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
⚠️ : 以上是Django rest framework框架基本流程,重要的功能是在APIView的dispatch中触发,也是框架的源码入口
3.2 认证和授权
3.2.1 基于token的验证

代码: 全选

urls.py

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^api/(?P<version>\w+)/', include('app01.urls')),
]
$ cat app01/urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^auth/$', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^user/$', views.UserView.as_view()),
]
$ cat models.py

代码: 全选

from django.db import models

class UserInfo(models.Model):
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)


class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField('UserInfo', on_delete=True)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)
$ cat views.py

代码: 全选

from django.shortcuts import render, HttpResponse

# Create your views here.
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from app01 import models
import uuid

class AuthView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []    # 登录认证接口覆盖默认的toekn认证类

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        response = {'code': 1000}
        user = request.data.get('username')
        pwd = request.data.get('password')

        obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user, password=pwd).first()
        if not obj:
            response['code'] = 1001
            response['msg'] = '用户或密码错误'
            return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})

        try:
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            response['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)
        return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})


class UserView(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return HttpResponse('user.get: %s' % request.user)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponse('user.post')
$ cat app01/utils/auth.py

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication
from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
from app01 import models

class TokenAuthtication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        :param request:
        :return:
        (user,auth) 表示认证成功,并将元组分别赋值给request.user/request.auth
        :raise AuthenticationFailed('认证失败')  表示认证失败
        """

        token = request.query_params.get('token')
        if not token:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("用户Token未携带")

        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("Token已失效或错误")
        return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)
$ cat settings.py

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES': ['app01.utils.auth.TokenAuthtication', ],
}
验证:

首先在数据库中构造请求登录的用户名密码
构造数据获取token信息

代码: 全选

$ curl -X POST \
>   http://127.0.0.1:8001/api/v1/auth/ \
>   -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' \
>   -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
>   -H 'Postman-Token: 8439ce0a-94ff-3970-c8c2-4c6bc200bb4f' \
>   -d '{"username": "eric","password":"123"}'
返回:

代码: 全选

{"code": 1000, "token": "4c90f696-008b-4e30-86fa-4b00b6fc9237"}

携带token访问user接口,获取用户信息

代码: 全选

>   'http://127.0.0.1:8001/api/v1/user/?token=4c90f696-008b-4e30-86fa-4b00b6fc9237' \
>   -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' \
>   -H 'Postman-Token: 1b4125ad-7ad1-1cca-70fd-6a00cca16d96'
返回:

代码: 全选

user.get: eric
3.2.2 基于请求头认证
$ cat urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^api/(?P<version>\w+)/', include('app01.urls')),
]
$ cat app01/urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^auth/$', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^user/$', views.UserView.as_view()),
]
$ cat app01/utils/auth.py

代码: 全选

#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# __author__ = "shuke"
# Date: 2018/6/1


from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication
from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
from rest_framework import exceptions
from app01 import models

class HeaderAuthentication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        用户认证,如果验证成功后返回元组: (用户,用户Token)
        :param request:
        :return:
            None,表示跳过该验证;
                如果跳过了所有认证,默认用户和Token和使用配置文件进行设置
                self._authenticator = None
                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER:
                    self.user = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER()
                else:
                    self.user = None

                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN:
                    self.auth = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN()
                else:
                    self.auth = None
            (user,token)表示验证通过并设置用户名和Token;
            AuthenticationFailed异常
        """
        import base64
        import uuid
        auth = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION', b'')
        if auth:
            auth = auth.encode('utf-8')
        auth = auth.split()
        if not auth or auth[0].lower() != b'basic':
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        if len(auth) != 2:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        username, part, password = base64.b64decode(auth[1]).decode('utf-8').partition(':')
        try:
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=username, password=password).first()
            if not obj:
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户名或密码错误')
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            token_obj, status = models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        Return a string to be used as the value of the `WWW-Authenticate`
        header in a `401 Unauthenticated` response, or `None` if the
        authentication scheme should return `403 Permission Denied` responses.
        """
        return 'Basic realm=api'
$ cat views.py

代码: 全选

from django.shortcuts import render, HttpResponse

# Create your views here.
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from app01.utils.auth import HeaderAuthentication
from app01 import models
import uuid


class AuthView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        response = {'code': 1000}
        user = request.data.get('username')
        pwd = request.data.get('password')

        obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user, password=pwd).first()
        if not obj:
            response['code'] = 1001
            response['msg'] = '用户或密码错误'
            return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})

        try:
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            response['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)
        return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})


class UserView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = [HeaderAuthentication, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return HttpResponse('user.get: %s,token: %s' % (request.user, request.auth))

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponse('user.post')
验证:

首先在数据库中构造请求登录的用户名密码
构造数据获取token信息,建议使用postman进行构造测试

代码: 全选

$ curl -X GET \
  http://127.0.0.1:8001/api/v1/user/ \
  -H 'Authorization: Basic c2h1a2U6MTIz' \
  -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' \
  -H 'Postman-Token: ba3f99ce-da6a-7e5f-3e0b-3c79129ecca1'
返回:

代码: 全选

user.get: shuke,token: 2d3af34a-1598-4d5a-af56-7f29a706a26e
3.2.3 多个认证规则
$ cat urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^api/(?P<version>\w+)/', include('app01.urls')),
]
$ cat app01/urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^auth/$', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^user/$', views.UserView.as_view()),
]
$ cat app01/utils/auth.py

代码: 全选

#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# __author__ = "shuke"
# Date: 2018/6/1


from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication
from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
from rest_framework import exceptions
from app01 import models


class TokenAuthtication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """

        :param request:
        :return:
        (user,auth) 表示认证成功,并将元组分别赋值给request.user/request.auth
        :raise AuthenticationFailed('认证失败')  表示认证失败
        """

        token = request.query_params.get('token')
        if not token:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("用户Token未携带")

        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("Token已失效或错误")
        return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)


class HeaderAuthentication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        用户认证,如果验证成功后返回元组: (用户,用户Token)
        :param request:
        :return:
            None,表示跳过该验证;
                如果跳过了所有认证,默认用户和Token和使用配置文件进行设置
                self._authenticator = None
                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER:
                    self.user = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER()
                else:
                    self.user = None

                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN:
                    self.auth = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN()
                else:
                    self.auth = None
            (user,token)表示验证通过并设置用户名和Token;
            AuthenticationFailed异常
        """
        import base64
        import uuid
        auth = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION', b'')
        if auth:
            auth = auth.encode('utf-8')
        auth = auth.split()
        if not auth or auth[0].lower() != b'basic':
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        if len(auth) != 2:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        username, part, password = base64.b64decode(auth[1]).decode('utf-8').partition(':')
        try:
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=username, password=password).first()
            if not obj:
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户名或密码错误')
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            token_obj, status = models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        Return a string to be used as the value of the `WWW-Authenticate`
        header in a `401 Unauthenticated` response, or `None` if the
        authentication scheme should return `403 Permission Denied` responses.
        """
        return 'Basic realm=api'
$ cat views.py

代码: 全选

from django.shortcuts import render, HttpResponse

# Create your views here.
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from app01.utils.auth import HeaderAuthentication, TokenAuthtication
from app01 import models
import uuid


class AuthView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        response = {'code': 1000}
        user = request.data.get('username')
        pwd = request.data.get('password')

        obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user, password=pwd).first()
        if not obj:
            response['code'] = 1001
            response['msg'] = '用户或密码错误'
            return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})

        try:
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            response['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)
        return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})


class UserView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = [HeaderAuthentication, TokenAuthtication]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return HttpResponse('user.get: %s,token: %s' % (request.user, request.auth))

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponse('user.post')
验证:

首先在数据库中构造请求登录的用户名密码
构造数据获取token信息,建议使用postman进行构造测试

代码: 全选

$ curl -X GET \
  http://127.0.0.1:8001/api/v1/user/ \
  -H 'Authorization: Basic c2h1a2U6MTIz' \
  -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' \
  -H 'Postman-Token: f91805b7-c742-b713-0010-c75cdbfbb24a'
返回:

代码: 全选

user.get: shuke,token: 9c3ca96a-ac03-4207-aaec-20433bae6058
3.2.4 认证和权限
路由
$ cat urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^api/(?P<version>\w+)/', include('app01.urls')),
]
$ cat app01/urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^auth/$', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^user/$', views.UserView.as_view()),
]
model

代码: 全选

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.
from django.db import models


class UserInfo(models.Model):
    user_type_choices = (
        (1, '普通用户'),
        (2, '管理员'),
        (3, '超级管理员'),
    )
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    user_type = models.IntegerField(choices=user_type_choices, default=1)


class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField('UserInfo', on_delete=True)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)
认证
$ cat app01/utils/auth.py

代码: 全选

#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# __author__ = "shuke"
# Date: 2018/6/1


from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication
from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
from rest_framework import exceptions
from app01 import models


class TokenAuthtication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """

        :param request:
        :return:
        (user,auth) 表示认证成功,并将元组分别赋值给request.user/request.auth
        :raise AuthenticationFailed('认证失败')  表示认证失败
        """

        token = request.query_params.get('token')
        if not token:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("用户Token未携带")

        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise AuthenticationFailed("Token已失效或错误")
        return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)


class HeaderAuthentication(BaseAuthentication):
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        用户认证,如果验证成功后返回元组: (用户,用户Token)
        :param request:
        :return:
            None,表示跳过该验证;
                如果跳过了所有认证,默认用户和Token和使用配置文件进行设置
                self._authenticator = None
                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER:
                    self.user = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER()
                else:
                    self.user = None

                if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN:
                    self.auth = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN()
                else:
                    self.auth = None
            (user,token)表示验证通过并设置用户名和Token;
            AuthenticationFailed异常
        """
        import base64
        import uuid
        auth = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION', b'')
        if auth:
            auth = auth.encode('utf-8')
        auth = auth.split()
        if not auth or auth[0].lower() != b'basic':
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        if len(auth) != 2:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')
        username, part, password = base64.b64decode(auth[1]).decode('utf-8').partition(':')
        try:
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=username, password=password).first()
            if not obj:
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户名或密码错误')
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            token_obj, status = models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            return (token_obj.user.username, token_obj)
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('验证失败')

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        Return a string to be used as the value of the `WWW-Authenticate`
        header in a `401 Unauthenticated` response, or `None` if the
        authentication scheme should return `403 Permission Denied` responses.
        """
        return 'Basic realm=api'
权限
$ cat app01/utils/permission.py

代码: 全选

#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# __author__ = "shuke"
# Date: 2018/6/3
from rest_framework.permissions import BasePermission


class UserPermission(BasePermission):
    """
    权限验证
    """

    def has_permission(self, request, view):
        """
        判断是否有权限访问当前请求
        Return `True` if permission is granted, `False` otherwise.
        :param request:
        :param view:
        :return: True有权限;False无权限
        """
        user_type_id = request.auth.user.user_type
        if user_type_id > 0:
            return True
        return False

    # GenericAPIView中get_object时调用
    def has_object_permission(self, request, view, obj):
        """
        视图继承GenericAPIView,并在其中使用get_object时获取对象时,触发单独对象权限验证
        Return `True` if permission is granted, `False` otherwise.
        :param request:
        :param view:
        :param obj:
        :return: True有权限;False无权限
        """
        user_type_id = request.auth.user.user_type
        if user_type_id > 0:
            return True
        return False


class ManagerPermission(BasePermission):
    """
    视图继承GenericAPIView,并在其中使用get_object时获取对象时,触发单独对象权限验证
    Return `True` if permission is granted, `False` otherwise.
    :param request:
    :param view:
    :param obj:
    :return: True有权限;False无权限
    """

    def has_permission(self, request, view):
        user_type_id = request.auth.user.user_type
        if user_type_id > 1:
            return True
        return False

    # GenericAPIView中get_object时调用
    def has_object_permission(self, request, view, obj):
        """
        视图继承GenericAPIView,并在其中使用get_object时获取对象时,触发单独对象权限验证
        Return `True` if permission is granted, `False` otherwise.
        :param request:
        :param view:
        :param obj:
        :return: True有权限;False无权限
        """
        user_type_id = request.auth.user.user_type
        if user_type_id > 1:
            return True
        return False
视图函数

代码: 全选

from django.shortcuts import render, HttpResponse

# Create your views here.
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from app01.utils.auth import HeaderAuthentication, TokenAuthtication
from app01.utils.permission import UserPermission, ManagerPermission
from app01 import models
import uuid


class AuthView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        response = {'code': 1000}
        user = request.data.get('username')
        pwd = request.data.get('password')

        obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user, password=pwd).first()
        if not obj:
            response['code'] = 1001
            response['msg'] = '用户或密码错误'
            return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})

        try:
            token = str(uuid.uuid4())
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
            response['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            print("Error: ", e)
        return JsonResponse(response, json_dumps_params={'ensure_ascii': False})


class UserView(APIView):
    # 认证的动作是由request.user触发
    authentication_classes = [HeaderAuthentication, TokenAuthtication]

    # 循环执行所有的权限,当前视图只允许管理员以上权限访问
    permission_classes = [ManagerPermission, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return HttpResponse('user.get: %s,token: %s' % (request.user, request.auth))

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponse('user.post')
验证:

代码: 全选

[站外图片上传中...(image-8f9f77-1528210315969)]
[站外图片上传中...(image-7d1e94-1528210315971)]
全局应用权限
上述操作中均是对单独视图进行特殊配置,如果想要对全局进行配置,则需要再配置文件中写入即可。

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'UNAUTHENTICATED_USER': None,
    'UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN': None,
    'DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES': ['app01.utils.auth.HeaderAuthentication', ],
    "DEFAULT_PERMISSION_CLASSES": [
        "app01.utils.permission.ManagerPermission",
    ],
}
路由
$ cat urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^api/(?P<version>\w+)/', include('app01.urls')),
]
$ cat app01/urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^auth/$', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^user/$', views.UserView.as_view()),
]
视图
$ cat views.py

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response


class UserView(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.3 用户访问次数/频率限制
3.3.1 基于用户IP访问限制频率
路由
$ cat urls.py

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view()),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import time
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

from rest_framework import exceptions
from rest_framework.throttling import BaseThrottle
from rest_framework.settings import api_settings

# 保存访问记录
RECORD = {
    '用户IP': [12312139, 12312135, 12312133, ]
}


class TestThrottle(BaseThrottle):
    ctime = time.time

    def get_ident(self, request):
        """
        根据用户IP和代理IP,当做请求者的唯一IP
        Identify the machine making the request by parsing HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR
        if present and number of proxies is > 0. If not use all of
        HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR if it is available, if not use REMOTE_ADDR.
        """
        xff = request.META.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR')
        remote_addr = request.META.get('REMOTE_ADDR')
        num_proxies = api_settings.NUM_PROXIES

        if num_proxies is not None:
            if num_proxies == 0 or xff is None:
                return remote_addr
            addrs = xff.split(',')
            client_addr = addrs[-min(num_proxies, len(addrs))]
            return client_addr.strip()

        return ''.join(xff.split()) if xff else remote_addr

    def allow_request(self, request, view):
        """
        是否仍然在允许范围内
        Return `True` if the request should be allowed, `False` otherwise.
        :param request: 
        :param view: 
        :return: True,表示可以通过;False表示已超过限制,不允许访问
        """
        # 获取用户唯一标识(如:IP)

        # 允许一分钟访问10次
        num_request = 10
        time_request = 60

        now = self.ctime()
        ident = self.get_ident(request)
        self.ident = ident
        if ident not in RECORD:
            RECORD[ident] = [now, ]
            return True
        history = RECORD[ident]
        while history and history[-1] <= now - time_request:
            history.pop()
        if len(history) < num_request:
            history.insert(0, now)
            return True

    def wait(self):
        """
        多少秒后可以允许继续访问
        Optionally, return a recommended number of seconds to wait before
        the next request.
        """
        last_time = RECORD[self.ident][0]
        now = self.ctime()
        return int(60 + last_time - now)


class TestView(APIView):
    throttle_classes = [TestThrottle, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')

    def throttled(self, request, wait):
        """
        访问次数被限制时,定制错误信息
        """

        class Throttled(exceptions.Throttled):
            default_detail = '请求被限制.'
            extra_detail_singular = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'
            extra_detail_plural = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'
            
        raise Throttled(wait)
3.3.2 基于用户IP控制访问频率(利用Django缓存)
全局配置

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_THROTTLE_RATES': {
        'test_scope': '10/m',
    },
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view()),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

from rest_framework import exceptions
from rest_framework.throttling import SimpleRateThrottle


class TestThrottle(SimpleRateThrottle):

    # 配置文件定义的显示频率的Key
    scope = "test_scope"

    def get_cache_key(self, request, view):
        """
        Should return a unique cache-key which can be used for throttling.
        Must be overridden.

        May return `None` if the request should not be throttled.
        """
        if not request.user:
            ident = self.get_ident(request)
        else:
            ident = request.user

        return self.cache_format % {
            'scope': self.scope,
            'ident': ident
        }


class TestView(APIView):
    throttle_classes = [TestThrottle, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')

    def throttled(self, request, wait):
        """
        访问次数被限制时,定制错误信息
        """

        class Throttled(exceptions.Throttled):
            default_detail = '请求被限制.'
            extra_detail_singular = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'
            extra_detail_plural = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'

        raise Throttled(wait)
3.3.3 在视图中限制请求频率
全局配置

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_THROTTLE_RATES': {
        'request_scope': '10/m',
    },
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view()),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

from rest_framework import exceptions
from rest_framework.throttling import ScopedRateThrottle


# 继承 ScopedRateThrottle
class TestThrottle(ScopedRateThrottle):

    def get_cache_key(self, request, view):
        """
        Should return a unique cache-key which can be used for throttling.
        Must be overridden.

        May return `None` if the request should not be throttled.
        """
        if not request.user:
            ident = self.get_ident(request)
        else:
            ident = request.user

        return self.cache_format % {
            'scope': self.scope,
            'ident': ident
        }


class TestView(APIView):
    throttle_classes = [TestThrottle, ]

    # 在settings中获取 xxxxxx 对应的频率限制值
    throttle_scope = "xxxxxx"

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')

    def throttled(self, request, wait):
        """
        访问次数被限制时,定制错误信息
        """

        class Throttled(exceptions.Throttled):
            default_detail = '请求被限制.'
            extra_detail_singular = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'
            extra_detail_plural = '请 {wait} 秒之后再重试.'

        raise Throttled(wait)
3.3.4 匿名时用IP限制+登录时用Token限制
全局配置

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'UNAUTHENTICATED_USER': None,
    'UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN': None,
    'DEFAULT_THROTTLE_RATES': {
        'backend_anon': '10/m',
        'backend_user': '20/m',
    },
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s3_throttling import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view()),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

from rest_framework.throttling import SimpleRateThrottle


class BackendAnonRateThrottle(SimpleRateThrottle):
    """
    匿名用户,根据IP进行限制
    """
    scope = "backend_anon"

    def get_cache_key(self, request, view):
        # 用户已登录,则跳过 匿名频率限制
        if request.user:
            return None

        return self.cache_format % {
            'scope': self.scope,
            'ident': self.get_ident(request)
        }


class BackendUserRateThrottle(SimpleRateThrottle):
    """
    登录用户,根据用户token限制
    """
    scope = "backend_user"

    def get_ident(self, request):
        """
        认证成功时:request.user是用户对象;request.auth是token对象
        :param request:
        :return:
        """
        # return request.auth.token
        return "user_token"

    def get_cache_key(self, request, view):
        """
        获取缓存key
        :param request:
        :param view:
        :return:
        """
        # 未登录用户,则跳过 Token限制
        if not request.user:
            return None

        return self.cache_format % {
            'scope': self.scope,
            'ident': self.get_ident(request)
        }


class TestView(APIView):
    throttle_classes = [BackendAnonRateThrottle, BackendUserRateThrottle, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        print(request.user)
        print(request.auth)
        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.3.5 全局使用

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_THROTTLE_CLASSES': [
        'api.utils.throttles.throttles.BackendAnonRateThrottle',
        'api.utils.throttles.throttles.BackendUserRateThrottle',
    ],
    'DEFAULT_THROTTLE_RATES': {
        'anon': '10/day',
        'user': '10/day',
        'backend_anon': '10/m',
        'backend_user': '20/m',
    },
}
3.4 版本
共6个类

BaseVersioning
AcceptHeaderVersioning
URLPathVersioning
NamespaceVersioning
HostNameVersioning
QueryParameterVersioning
而且还可以看到BaseVersioning类是其余5个类的父类,并且这其余的5个类,每个类中都有一个determine_version方法,在项目的视图函数中导入其中任意一个类,打印versioning_class

代码: 全选

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from django.views import View
from rest_framework.versioning import QueryParameterVersioning

class UsersView(APIView):
    versioning_class=QueryParameterVersioning

    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        print(self.versioning_class)        #打印versioning_class

        return HttpResponse("aaaa")
输出结果:

代码: 全选

<class 'rest_framework.versioning.QueryParameterVersioning'>
所以versioning_class是一个类,并且versioning_class类中有一个determine_version方法
3.4.1 基于URL的GET传参方式
如:/users?version=v1
全局配置

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',            # 默认版本
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],   # 允许的版本
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version'          # URL中获取值的key
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.versioning import QueryParameterVersioning


class TestView(APIView):
    versioning_class = QueryParameterVersioning

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取版本
        print(request.version)
        # 获取版本管理的类
        print(request.versioning_scheme)

        # 反向生成URL
        reverse_url = request.versioning_scheme.reverse('test', request=request)
        print(reverse_url)

        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.4.2 基于URL的正则方式
如: /v1/users/

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',            # 默认版本
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],   # 允许的版本
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version'          # URL中获取值的key
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^(?P<version>[v1|v2]+)/test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.versioning import URLPathVersioning


class TestView(APIView):
    versioning_class = URLPathVersioning

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取版本
        print(request.version)
        # 获取版本管理的类
        print(request.versioning_scheme)

        # 反向生成URL
        reverse_url = request.versioning_scheme.reverse('test', request=request)
        print(reverse_url)

        return Response('GET请求,响应内容')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.4.3 基于accept请求头方式
如:Accept: application/json; version=1.0

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',            # 默认版本
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],   # 允许的版本
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version'          # URL中获取值的key
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.versioning import AcceptHeaderVersioning


class TestView(APIView):
    versioning_class = AcceptHeaderVersioning

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取版本 HTTP_ACCEPT头
        print(request.version)
        # 获取版本管理的类
        print(request.versioning_scheme)
        # 反向生成URL
        reverse_url = request.versioning_scheme.reverse('test', request=request)
        print(reverse_url)

        return Response('GET请求,响应内容,基于Accept请求头方式')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容,基于Accept请求头方式')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容,基于Accept请求头方式')
3.4.4 基于主机名方式
如: v1.example.com

代码: 全选

ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['*']
REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',  # 默认版本
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],  # 允许的版本
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version'  # URL中获取值的key
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.versioning import HostNameVersioning


class TestView(APIView):
    versioning_class = HostNameVersioning

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取版本
        print(request.version)
        # 获取版本管理的类
        print(request.versioning_scheme)
        # 反向生成URL
        reverse_url = request.versioning_scheme.reverse('test', request=request)
        print(reverse_url)

        return Response('GET请求,响应内容,基于主机名方式')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容,基于主机名方式')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容,基于主机名方式')
3.4.5 基于Django路由系统的namespace
如: example.com/v1/users/

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',  # 默认版本
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],  # 允许的版本
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version'  # URL中获取值的key
}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^v1/', ([
                      url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test1')
                  ], None, 'v1')),
    url(r'^v2/', ([
                      url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test2')
                  ], None, 'v2')),

]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.versioning import NamespaceVersioning


class TestView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []
    versioning_class = NamespaceVersioning

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取版本
        print(request.version)
        # 获取版本管理的类
        print(request.versioning_scheme)
        # 反向生成URL
        reverse_url = request.versioning_scheme.reverse('test1', request=request)
        print(reverse_url)

        return Response('GET请求,响应内容,基于Django路由系统的namespace')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容,基于Django路由系统的namespace')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容,基于Django路由系统的namespace')
3.4.6 全局应用

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_VERSIONING_CLASS':"rest_framework.versioning.URLPathVersioning",
    'DEFAULT_VERSION': 'v1',
    'ALLOWED_VERSIONS': ['v1', 'v2'],
    'VERSION_PARAM': 'version' 
}
3.4.7 自定义版本控制方案
要实现自定义版本控制方案,请继承 BaseVersioning并覆盖 .determine_version 方法。
举个栗子
以下示例使用自定义的 X-API-Version header 来确定所请求的版本

代码: 全选

class XAPIVersionScheme(versioning.BaseVersioning):
    def determine_version(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return request.META.get('HTTP_X_API_VERSION', None)
如果你的版本控制方案基于请求 URL,则还需要更改版本化 URL 的确定方式。为了做到这一点,你应该重写类的 .reverse()方法。有关示例,请参阅源代码。
3.5 解析器(parser)
根据请求头content-type选择对应的解析器就请求体内容进行处理
3.5.1 仅处理请求头content-type为application/json的请求体
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s5_parser import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.parsers import JSONParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [JSONParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)

        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)

        return Response('POST请求,请求内容: %s' % request.data)

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容,解析器')
3.5.2 仅处理请求头content-type为application/x-www-form-urlencoded的请求体
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import FormParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [FormParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)

        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.5.3 仅处理请求头content-type为multipart/form-data的请求体
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from django.shortcuts import render
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.parsers import MultiPartParser


class TestView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []
    parser_classes = [MultiPartParser, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return render(request, 'test.html')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
模版文件

代码: 全选

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="text" name="user" />
    <input type="file" name="img">

    <input type="submit" value="提交">

</form>
</body>
</html>
3.5.4 仅上传文件
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/(?P<filename>[^/]+)', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.parsers import FileUploadParser


class TestView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []
    parser_classes = [FileUploadParser, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return render(request, 'test.html')

    def post(self, request, filename, *args, **kwargs):
        print(filename)
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
模版文件

代码: 全选

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/f1.numbers" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="text" name="user" />
    <input type="file" name="img">

    <input type="submit" value="提交">

</form>
</body>
</html>
3.5.5 同时多个Parser
当同时使用多个parser时,rest framework会根据请求头content-type自动进行比对,并使用对应parser
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.parsers import JSONParser, FormParser, MultiPartParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [JSONParser, FormParser, MultiPartParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
3.5.6 全局应用

代码: 全选

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES':[
        'rest_framework.parsers.JSONParser'
        'rest_framework.parsers.FormParser'
        'rest_framework.parsers.MultiPartParser'
    ]

}
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response


class TestView(APIView):
    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
⚠️ 个别特殊的值可以通过Django的request对象 request._request 来进行获取
3.6 序列化
序列化用于对用户请求数据进行验证和数据进行序列化
3.6.1 自定义字段
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
models

代码: 全选

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.
from django.db import models


class UserInfo(models.Model):
    user_type_choices = (
        (1, '普通用户'),
        (2, '管理员'),
        (3, '超级管理员'),
    )
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    user_type = models.IntegerField(choices=user_type_choices, default=1)


class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField('UserInfo', on_delete=True)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models


class PasswordValidator(object):
    def __init__(self, base):
        self.base = base

    def __call__(self, value):
        if value != self.base:
            message = 'This field must be %s.' % self.base
            raise serializers.ValidationError(message)

    def set_context(self, serializer_field):
        """
        This hook is called by the serializer instance,
        prior to the validation call being made.
        """
        # 执行验证之前调用,serializer_fields是当前字段对象
        pass


class UserSerializer(serializers.Serializer):
    user_type = serializers.IntegerField()
    username = serializers.CharField(min_length=3)
    password = serializers.CharField(error_messages={'required': '密码不能为空'}, validators=[PasswordValidator('666')])


class TestView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

        # 序列化,将数据库查询字段序列化为字典
        data_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = UserSerializer(instance=data_list, many=True)
        # 或
        # obj = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        # ser = UserSerializer(instance=obj, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 验证,对请求发来的数据进行验证
        ser = UserSerializer(data=request.data)
        if ser.is_valid():
            print(ser.validated_data)
        else:
            print(ser.errors)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')
POST验证:

代码: 全选

curl -X POST \
  http://127.0.0.1:8001/test/ \
  -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'Postman-Token: 4ea5d1d1-e3b1-38a3-19f6-25070ace2342' \
  -d '{
        "user_type": 2,
        "username": "python",
        "password": "666"
    }'
3.6.2 基于Model自动生成字段
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s6_serializers import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from .. import models


class PasswordValidator(object):
    def __init__(self, base):
        self.base = str(base)

    def __call__(self, value):
        if value != self.base:
            message = 'This field must be %s.' % self.base
            raise serializers.ValidationError(message)

    def set_context(self, serializer_field):
        """
        This hook is called by the serializer instance,
        prior to the validation call being made.
        """
        # 执行验证之前调用,serializer_fields是当前字段对象
        pass

class ModelUserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):

    user = serializers.CharField(max_length=32)

    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"
        # fields = ['user', 'pwd', 'ut']
        depth = 2
        extra_kwargs = {'user': {'min_length': 6}, 'pwd': {'validators': [PasswordValidator(666), ]}}
        # read_only_fields = ['user']


class TestView(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

        # 序列化,将数据库查询字段序列化为字典
        data_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(instance=data_list, many=True)
        # 或
        # obj = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        # ser = UserSerializer(instance=obj, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 验证,对请求发来的数据进行验证
        print(request.data)
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(data=request.data)
        if ser.is_valid():
            print(ser.validated_data)
        else:
            print(ser.errors)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')
3.6.3 生成URL
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s6_serializers import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
    url(r'detail/(?P<pk>\d+)/', TestView.as_view(), name='detail'),
]
models

代码: 全选

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.
from django.db import models


class UserInfo(models.Model):
    user_type_choices = (
        (1, '普通用户'),
        (2, '管理员'),
        (3, '超级管理员'),
    )
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    user_type = models.IntegerField(choices=user_type_choices, default=1)


class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField('UserInfo', on_delete=True)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models


class PasswordValidator(object):
    def __init__(self, base):
        self.base = str(base)

    def __call__(self, value):
        if value != self.base:
            message = 'This field must be %s.' % self.base
            raise serializers.ValidationError(message)

    def set_context(self, serializer_field):
        """
        This hook is called by the serializer instance,
        prior to the validation call being made.
        """
        # 执行验证之前调用,serializer_fields是当前字段对象
        pass


class ModelUserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    user_type = serializers.HyperlinkedIdentityField(view_name='detail')

    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"

        extra_kwargs = {
            'username': {'min_length': 6},
            'pasword': {'validators': [PasswordValidator(666), ]},
        }


class TestView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

        # 序列化,将数据库查询字段序列化为字典
        data_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(instance=data_list, many=True, context={'request': request})
        # 或
        # obj = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        # ser = UserSerializer(instance=obj, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 验证,对请求发来的数据进行验证
        print(request.data)
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(data=request.data)
        if ser.is_valid():
            print(ser.validated_data)
        else:
            print(ser.errors)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')
请求如下图所示:

代码: 全选

[站外图片上传中...(image-5aaf7-1528210315972)]
3.6.4 自动生成URL
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
    url(r'detail/(?P<pk>\d+)/', TestView.as_view(), name='detail-info'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models


class PasswordValidator(object):
    def __init__(self, base):
        self.base = str(base)

    def __call__(self, value):
        if value != self.base:
            message = 'This field must be %s.' % self.base
            raise serializers.ValidationError(message)

    def set_context(self, serializer_field):
        """
        This hook is called by the serializer instance,
        prior to the validation call being made.
        """
        # 执行验证之前调用,serializer_fields是当前字段对象
        pass


class ModelUserSerializer(serializers.HyperlinkedModelSerializer):
    ll = serializers.HyperlinkedIdentityField(view_name='detail-info')
    tt = serializers.CharField(required=False)

    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"
        list_serializer_class = serializers.ListSerializer

        extra_kwargs = {
            'username': {'min_length': 6},
            'password': {'validators': [PasswordValidator(666), ]},
            'url': {'view_name': 'detail-info'},
            'ut': {'view_name': 'detail-info'},
        }


class TestView(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # # 序列化,将数据库查询字段序列化为字典
        data_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(instance=data_list, many=True, context={'request': request})
        # # 如果Many=True
        # # 或
        # # obj = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        # # ser = UserSerializer(instance=obj, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 验证,对请求发来的数据进行验证
        print(request.data)
        ser = ModelUserSerializer(data=request.data)
        if ser.is_valid():
            print(ser.validated_data)
        else:
            print(ser.errors)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')
3.7 分页
3.7.1 根据页码进行分页
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import UserViewSet

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', UserViewSet.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models

from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination


class StandardResultsSetPagination(PageNumberPagination):
    # 默认每页显示的数据条数
    page_size = 1
    # 获取URL参数中设置的每页显示数据条数
    page_size_query_param = 'page_size'

    # 获取URL参数中传入的页码key
    page_query_param = 'page'

    # 最大支持的每页显示的数据条数
    max_page_size = 1


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().order_by('-id')

        # 实例化分页对象,获取数据库中的分页数据
        paginator = StandardResultsSetPagination()
        page_user_list = paginator.paginate_queryset(user_list, self.request, view=self)

        # 序列化对象
        serializer = UserSerializer(page_user_list, many=True)

        # 生成分页和数据
        response = paginator.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)
        return response
访问验证:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8001/test/?page=1
http://127.0.0.1:8001/test/?page=2
3.7.2 位置和个数进行分页
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import UserViewSet

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', UserViewSet.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models

from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination, LimitOffsetPagination


class StandardResultsSetPagination(LimitOffsetPagination):
    # 默认每页显示的数据条数
    default_limit = 2
    # URL中传入的显示数据条数的参数
    limit_query_param = 'limit'
    # URL中传入的数据位置的参数
    offset_query_param = 'offset'
    # 最大每页显得条数
    max_limit = None


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().order_by('-id')

        # 实例化分页对象,获取数据库中的分页数据
        paginator = StandardResultsSetPagination()
        page_user_list = paginator.paginate_queryset(user_list, self.request, view=self)

        # 序列化对象
        serializer = UserSerializer(page_user_list, many=True)

        # 生成分页和数据
        response = paginator.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)
        return response
验证:


3.7.3 游标分页
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from app01.views import UserViewSet

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', UserViewSet.as_view(), name='test'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

# !/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework import serializers
from . import models

from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination, LimitOffsetPagination, CursorPagination


class StandardResultsSetPagination(CursorPagination):
    # URL传入的游标参数
    cursor_query_param = 'cursor'
    # 默认每页显示的数据条数
    page_size = 10
    # URL传入的每页显示条数的参数
    page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
    # 每页显示数据最大条数
    max_page_size = 1000

    # 根据ID从大到小排列
    ordering = "id"


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().order_by('-id')

        # 实例化分页对象,获取数据库中的分页数据
        paginator = StandardResultsSetPagination()
        page_user_list = paginator.paginate_queryset(user_list, self.request, view=self)

        # 序列化对象
        serializer = UserSerializer(page_user_list, many=True)

        # 生成分页和数据
        response = paginator.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)
        return response
3.8 路由系统
3.8.1 自定义路由
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import s11_render

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/$', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
    url(r'^test\.(?P<format>[a-z0-9]+)$', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
    url(r'^test/(?P<pk>[^/.]+)/$', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
    url(r'^test/(?P<pk>[^/.]+)\.(?P<format>[a-z0-9]+)$', s11_render.TestView.as_view())
]
视图

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from .. import models


class TestView(APIView):
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(kwargs)
        print(self.renderer_classes)
        return Response('...')
3.8.2 半自动路由
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import s10_generic

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/$', s10_generic.UserViewSet.as_view({'get': 'list', 'post': 'create'})),
    url(r'^test/(?P<pk>\d+)/$', s10_generic.UserViewSet.as_view(
        {'get': 'retrieve', 'put': 'update', 'patch': 'partial_update', 'delete': 'destroy'})),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.viewsets import ModelViewSet
from rest_framework import serializers
from .. import models


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(ModelViewSet):
    queryset = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer
3.8.3 全自动路由
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from rest_framework import routers
from web.views import s10_generic


router = routers.DefaultRouter()
router.register(r'users', s10_generic.UserViewSet)

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^', include(router.urls)),
]
视图

代码: 全选

from rest_framework.viewsets import ModelViewSet
from rest_framework import serializers
from .. import models


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(ModelViewSet):
    queryset = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer
3.9 视图
3.9.1 GenericViewSet
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s7_viewset import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view({'get':'list'}), name='test'),
    url(r'detail/(?P<pk>\d+)/', TestView.as_view({'get':'list'}), name='xxxx'),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework import viewsets
from rest_framework.response import Response


class TestView(viewsets.GenericViewSet):
    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('...')

    def add(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        pass

    def delete(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        pass

    def edit(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        pass
3.9.2 ModelViewSet(自定义URL)
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import s10_generic

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/$', s10_generic.UserViewSet.as_view({'get': 'list', 'post': 'create'})),
    url(r'^test/(?P<pk>\d+)/$', s10_generic.UserViewSet.as_view(
        {'get': 'retrieve', 'put': 'update', 'patch': 'partial_update', 'delete': 'destroy'})),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.viewsets import ModelViewSet
from rest_framework import serializers
from .. import models


class UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class UserViewSet(ModelViewSet):
    queryset = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer
3.9.3 ModelViewSet(rest framework路由)
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from rest_framework import routers
from app01 import views

router = routers.DefaultRouter()
router.register(r'users', views.UserViewSet)
router.register(r'groups', views.GroupViewSet)

# Wire up our API using automatic URL routing.
# Additionally, we include login URLs for the browsable API.
urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^', include(router.urls)),
]
视图

代码: 全选

from rest_framework import viewsets
from rest_framework import serializers


class UserSerializer(serializers.HyperlinkedModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.User
        fields = ('url', 'username', 'email', 'groups')


class GroupSerializer(serializers.HyperlinkedModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.Group
        fields = ('url', 'name')
        
class UserViewSet(viewsets.ModelViewSet):
    """
    API endpoint that allows users to be viewed or edited.
    """
    queryset = User.objects.all().order_by('-date_joined')
    serializer_class = UserSerializer


class GroupViewSet(viewsets.ModelViewSet):
    """
    API endpoint that allows groups to be viewed or edited.
    """
    queryset = Group.objects.all()
    serializer_class = GroupSerializer
3.10 渲染器
根据用户请求URL或用户可接受的类型,筛选出合适的渲染组件
用户请求URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=json

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.json
用户请求头:
Accept:text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,/;q=0.8

3.10.1 Json
访问URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=json
http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.json

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/
路由:

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import s11_render

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/$', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
    url(r'^test\.(?P<format>[a-z0-9]+)', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
]
视图:

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers

from rest_framework.renderers import JSONRenderer

from .. import models


class TestSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class TestView(APIView):
    renderer_classes = [JSONRenderer, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = TestSerializer(instance=user_list, many=True)
        return Response(ser.data)
3.10.2 表格
访问URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=admin
http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.admin

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/
视图:

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from rest_framework.renderers import AdminRenderer
from . import models

class TestSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class TestView(APIView):
    renderer_classes = [AdminRenderer, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = TestSerializer(instance=user_list, many=True)
        return Response(ser.data)
3.10.3 Form表单
访问URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=form
http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.form

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/
视图:

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers

from rest_framework.renderers import JSONRenderer
from rest_framework.renderers import AdminRenderer
from rest_framework.renderers import HTMLFormRendere
from . import models

class TestSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"

class TestView(APIView):
    renderer_classes = [HTMLFormRenderer, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        ser = TestSerializer(instance=user_list, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data)
3.10.4 自定义显示模版
访问URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=html
http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.html

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/
路由

代码: 全选

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import s11_render

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^test/$', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
    url(r'^test\.(?P<format>[a-z0-9]+)', s11_render.TestView.as_view()),
]
视图

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from rest_framework.renderers import TemplateHTMLRenderer
from . import models

class TestSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"


class TestView(APIView):
    renderer_classes = [TemplateHTMLRenderer, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        ser = TestSerializer(instance=user_list, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data, template_name='user_detail.html')
模版
$ cat user_detail.html

代码: 全选

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
    {{ user }}
    {{ pwd }}
    {{ ut }}
</body>
</html>
3.10.5 浏览器API+JSON
访问URL:

代码: 全选

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/?format=api
http://127.0.0.1:8000/test.api

http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/
视图:

代码: 全选

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework import serializers
from rest_framework.renderers import JSONRenderer
from rest_framework.renderers import BrowsableAPIRenderer
from . import models

class TestSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        fields = "__all__"

class CustomBrowsableAPIRenderer(BrowsableAPIRenderer):
    def get_default_renderer(self, view):
        return JSONRenderer()

class TestView(APIView):
    renderer_classes = [CustomBrowsableAPIRenderer, ]

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        user_list = models.UserInfo.objects.all().first()
        ser = TestSerializer(instance=user_list, many=False)
        return Response(ser.data, template_name='user_detail.html')
注意: 如果同时多个存在时,自动根据URL后缀来选择渲染器

回复

回到 “Python框架-Django”